4oo HISTORY OF WESTERN EDUCATION comes when the child has sufficiently mastered the methods of thought, inquiry and activity appropriate to various phases of experience to be able to specialize upon distinct studies and arts for technical and intellectual aims. At this stage there is a sense of more remote ends : the pupil is able to raise problems for him- self, and to seek solutions for them. As this part of the course was never worked out adequately by Dewey there is no need to enter into details of his tentative programmes of study. So far, Professor Dewey's views on education have been considered with reference only to the practical forms assumed by them. But the underlying psychological presuppositions, as expounded by him at the time the experiment was going on and later, have a wider significance. These presuppositions, as he has been careful to point out, are not peculiar to himself. They are in essence the contemporary psychology, based on the application of the evolutionary view to mind. All that. he has done has been to bring this psychology into relation to" educational practice. '* The idea from which Dewey sets out in his discussion of education is that mind is not a fixed entity but a process of growth. According'to the older view, mind is the same through- out, because fitted out with the same assortment of faculties both in child and in adult. If any difference was made, it was simply that some of these ready-made faculties, such as memory, were supposed to come into play at an earlier time, while others, like judgment and inference, made their appearance later. The p only important difference recognized was that of quantity. ^Th'e boy was assumed to be a little man, and his mind a little mind, in everything but range the same as that of an adult. That view, according to Dewey, can no longer be held. If we accept the conception of evolution in reference to mind, we must think of it as essentially in change, with the continuity of growth and yet presenting different phases of capacity and interest at different periods. The antagonism between the correlative systems of education is no less deep. On the faculty view of mind, the logically arranged principles and facts which are the subject- matter of adult thought are the natural " studies " of the child. Human knowledge is first subdivided into sections called " subjects " : then each " subject" is broken up into parts, and some one part assigned to a certain year of the school course.